4. Working with Environments

The following discusses Pkg's interaction with environments. For more on the role environments play in code loading, including the "stack" of environments from which code can be loaded, see this section in the Julia manual.

Creating your own projects

So far we have added packages to the default project at ~/.julia/environments/v1.0. It is however easy to create other, independent, projects. It should be pointed out that when two projects use the same package at the same version, the content of this package is not duplicated. In order to create a new project, create a directory for it and then activate that directory to make it the "active project", which package operations manipulate:

julia> mkdir("MyProject")

julia> cd("MyProject")

(v1.0) pkg> activate .

(MyProject) pkg> st
    Status `Project.toml`

Note that the REPL prompt changed when the new project is activated. Since this is a newly created project, the status command shows that it contains no packages, and in fact, it has no project or manifest file until we add a package to it:

julia> readdir()
0-element Array{String,1}

(MyProject) pkg> add Example
  Updating registry at `~/.julia/registries/General`
  Updating git-repo `https://github.com/JuliaRegistries/General.git`
 Resolving package versions...
  Updating `Project.toml`
  [7876af07] + Example v0.5.1
  Updating `Manifest.toml`
  [7876af07] + Example v0.5.1
  [8dfed614] + Test
Precompiling project...
  1 dependency successfully precompiled in 2 seconds

julia> readdir()
2-element Array{String,1}:

julia> print(read("Project.toml", String))
Example = "7876af07-990d-54b4-ab0e-23690620f79a"

julia> print(read("Manifest.toml", String))
deps = ["Test"]
git-tree-sha1 = "8eb7b4d4ca487caade9ba3e85932e28ce6d6e1f8"
uuid = "7876af07-990d-54b4-ab0e-23690620f79a"
version = "0.5.1"

uuid = "8dfed614-e22c-5e08-85e1-65c5234f0b40"

This new environment is completely separate from the one we used earlier.

Project Precompilation

By default any package that is added to a project or updated in a Pkg action will be automatically precompiled, along with its dependencies. The exception is the develop command, which neither builds nor precompiles the package, when that happens is left up to the user to decide.

If a package that has been updated is already loaded in the session, the precompilation process will go ahead and precompile the new version, and any packages that depend on it, but will note that the package cannot be used until session restart.

To disable this auto-precompilation, set ENV["JULIA_PKG_PRECOMPILE_AUTO"]=0, after which precompilation can be triggered manually either serially via code loading

julia> using Example
[ Info: Precompiling Example [7876af07-990d-54b4-ab0e-23690620f79a]

or the parallel precompilation, which can be significantly faster when many dependencies are involved, via

pkg> precompile
Precompiling project...
  23 dependencies successfully precompiled in 36 seconds

Using someone else's project

Simply clone their project using e.g. git clone, cd to the project directory and call

(v1.0) pkg> activate .

(SomeProject) pkg> instantiate

If the project contains a manifest, this will install the packages in the same state that is given by that manifest. Otherwise, it will resolve the latest versions of the dependencies compatible with the project.

Specifying project on startup

Instead of using activate from within Julia you can specify the project on startup using the --project=<path> flag. For example, to run a script from the command line using the environment in the current directory you can run

$ julia --project=. myscript.jl